Un protest „Umbrella Rosie”. Umbrela rosie este simbolul mondial al miscarii drepturilor lucratorilor sexuali.

Intre 1990 si 2015, in Marea Britanie, aproximativ 152 de lucratori sexuali au fost ucisi. [1] Multi mai multi au suferit violenta precum violul, tentativa de viol si alte forme de agresiune sexuala. Un sondaj din 2015 a constatat ca 49% dintre lucratorii sexuali ingrijorati de siguranta lor si un numar egal se simte fie „neconfidential”, fie „foarte neconfidential” ca politia isi va lua rapoartele in serios. [2] Desi grupurile de lobby, factorii de decizie si fortele de politie lucreaza pentru imbunatatirea sigurantei lucratorilor sexuali, ceea ce include dezbaterea dezincriminarii vanzarilor sexuale si incriminarea cumparaturilor sexuale, cei care vand sex si experimenteaza violenta se confrunta adesea cu discriminare de catre sistemul de justitie penala.

Raspunsurile complicate si deseori conflictuale pentru lucratorii sexuali care devin victime ale violentei nu sunt in niciun caz noi si nu se limiteaza la politie si la instante. bbw mom and son porn Daca ne uitam la dovezile din secolele anterioare, este clar ca atat raspunsurile sociale, cat si cele juridice au avut adesea prea putine legaturi cu legalitatea muncii sexuale, si cu atat mai mult cu atitudinile fata de reputatia sexuala a femeilor.

Unele dintre cele mai bogate dovezi cu privire la munca sexuala din Marea Britanie din secolul al optsprezecelea pot fi gasite in dosarele judiciare. Acest lucru poate parea evident la inceput, dar atunci cand consideram ca prostitutia (asa cum era cunoscuta la vremea respectiva, dar denumita in continuare munca sexuala) nu a fost ilegala din punct de vedere tehnic in Anglia sau Tara Galilor in acest moment, gasind dovezi abundente in acest sens sistemul pare paradoxal.

Motivul pentru care exista atat de multe dovezi ale muncii sexuale in cazierul judiciar este acela ca multi lucratori sexuali si clientii lor s-au trezit implicati in crime care s-au intamplat in acelasi timp ca o tranzactie sexuala. Acestea includ infractiuni de oportunitate, cum ar fi pickpocketing. Istoricii muncii sexuale au considerat aceste tipuri de activitati infractionale, precum si munca sexuala in sine, ca parte a unei „economii de schimbari” pe care multe femei marginalizate din punct de vedere economic s-au angajat in trecut pentru a-si atinge scopurile.

William Hogarth, „Progresul Harlotului”, Placa 5: „Moll Dying of Syphilis” (1732). lolbit porn

Incadrarea muncii sexuale in termeni de femei marginalizate din punct de vedere economic care se implica activ in munca sexuala este mostenirea istoricilor feministe, precum Judith Walkowitz si Marion Pluskota. Aceste istorii importante pun accentul pe agentia femeilor si nu pe victimele lor si sunt relevante pentru discutiile politice despre munca sexuala astazi. Cu toate acestea, aceste abordari nu neaga faptul ca multe lucratoare sexuale au fost si sunt inca vulnerabile. Precaritatea economica care motiveaza femeile sa apeleze la munca sexuala le face vulnerabile la violenta sexuala din partea barbatilor. Atitudinile culturale si legale fata de munca sexuala pot apoi comprima, complica si agrava aceste vulnerabilitati.

Cel mai bun mod de a ilustra acest lucru este cu un exemplu care provine dintr-o cauza judecatoreasca. In propria mea cercetare, explorez femeile, sexul si sexul din Tara Galilor din secolul al XVIII-lea si folosesc documentele Curtii Marilor Sedinte, care a fost cea mai inalta instanta penala din Tara Galilor inainte de 1830. michele hartranft porn In acest caz, femeia in cauza nu a fost implicata intr-o crima care a avut loc in jurul unei tranzactii sexuale, dar a fost ea insasi victima violentei sexuale fatale.

In 1788, in orasul Cardigan din vestul Tarii Galilor, vaduva pe nume Elizabeth, despre care se stia in comunitatea ei ca a condus anterior o casa neplacuta, a fost ucisa. Depunerile martorilor ofera dovezi fascinante despre modul in care femeia implicata in munca sexuala ar putea fi la sfarsitul primitor de sprijin si compasiune din partea vecinilor si, in acelasi timp, sa fie lasata sa sufere ca urmare a reputatiei sale sexuale.

William Hogarth, „Cele patru etape ale cruzimii”, Placa 3: „Cruelty in Perfection” (1751), infatisand uciderea Ann Gill a insarcinatei de catre iubitul sau Tom Nero.

In iulie din acel an, doi barbati, Samuel Mann si Ephriam Wells, producator de caramizi si strat de caramida din Cheltenam, au intrat in pub-ul Black Lion din Cardigan. L-au intrebat pe proprietar, John Mason, unde ar putea „gasi o fata” la care Mason a raspuns ca nu stie. Atunci Mann si Wells au intrebat unde este „Old Bessy”, la care Mason a raspuns ca este foarte bolnava si ca a fost de ceva timp. sexy sister porn

Not taking no for an answer, Mann and Wells helped themselves to a bottle of brandy and left. Mason followed the pair ‘in secret’ to the house of Elizabeth George, where he watched from a distance. Mason deposed that he heard commotion coming from in the house, including the men offering her money, and Elizabeth crying out to be left alone, followed by the sound of chairs of benches being moved about. When Mason heard Elizabeth cry out (in Welsh) ‘for god’s sake let me alone’, he threw a stone at the house, and then went away.

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A married woman named Sarah, who lived next door to Elizabeth, deposed that Elizabeth had an ‘asthmatic complaint or a dropsy in her chest and in her stomach for a very long and tedious time’, and over the preceding month Sarah had tended to her and helped her to bed each night by propping a bench against the wall, and attaching her clothing to the wall to keep Elizabeth upright so she could breathe through the night. On the evening when Mann and Wells forced their way in, Sarah had already been by to tie Elizabeth to the wall.

Later that night, Sarah and her husband were awakened by a noise in Elizabeth’s house, and she urged her husband to investigate. female zombie porn He went to do so, but because of Elizabeth’s reputation as a person who kept a bawdy house, ‘frequented by loud persons of both sexes’, and because the noise soon after stopped, he never actually investigated or intervened.

Early the following morning Sarah went to tend to Elizabeth. She found the door open, and Elizabeth dead on the bed in an ‘indecent manner’ with her lower body exposed and her legs ‘spread as far as seemed physically possible’. Elizabeth was deemed to have died of an asthma attack. Wells and Mann both fled, avoiding prosecution.

This case is fascinating because it reveals the complex, and at times conflicted status of women who engaged in sex work. Elizabeth reputation as the owner of a bawdy house was clearly known in the community, but that did not prevent her from being on the receiving end of charity and care from her neighbours. magical girl porn Sarah tended to her each night, and the pub landlord attempted to limited degree to dissuade her assailants from going to her.

However, her neighbours’ interventions had limits. We can’t know why Mason threw a stone and ran away rather than intervening or seeking help. But, her neighbour’s deposition makes clear that, despite her ill health and compromised physical position, her history of keeping a bawdy house prevented him from intervening. It is impossible to know if there was any deep-rooted moral judgement at play, but at least on the surface, it seems as though it was not only Elizabeth’s ill health that made her vulnerable, as her reputation prevented any meaningful intervention on her behalf.

If we think of this in terms of changing attitudes towards sex work elsewhere in Britain, this is more than 30 years after the establishment in London of the Magdalen Hospital for The Reception of Penitent Prostitutes. Over the eighteenth century, women involved in sex work were increasingly seen as victims of poverty and men’s lust rather than being lusty, sinful characters themselves. saggy granny porn Those who were willing to give up the trade were therefore eligible for charity, but if they returned to sex work, charity could be revoked. Elizabeth’s case may reflect this dynamic.

This is one of only a handful of cases relating to sex work in eighteenth-century Wales that exist. Although limited, cases like these present an opportunity to re-evaluate women’s agency and vulnerability in ways that very much resonate with debates around sex work, agency and the vulnerability of economically-marginalised women in Britain, and elsewhere, today.

[1] House of Commons, Prostitution (Third report of sessions 2016-2017), p. 3.

[2] House of Commons, Prostitution (Third report of sessions 2016-2017), p. vomit porn reddit 17, citing National Ugly Mugs (PRO0082)

Angela Muir is a lecturer in Social and Cultural History at the University of Leicester. Her research focuses on sex, gender and the body in eighteenth-century Britain. She has published on illegitimacy, and maternity care and childbirth in eighteenth-century Wales. Her first monograph, Deviant Maternity: Illegitimacy in Wales, c. 1680-1800 will be published by Routledge in 2021. She tweets @DrAngelaMuir and has a blog here.